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Videosphere Artists

Brian Alfred was born in 1974 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He attended Pennsylvania State University, where he received a BA, and studied at the Skowhegan School of Painting & Sculpture. He received an MFA at Yale University. Solo exhibitions of his work have been presented at the Max Protech Gallery, New York, in 2000; the Sandroni Rey Gallery, Los Angeles, in 2003; the Haunch of Venison, London, in 2005; and SCAI THE BATHHOUSE, Tokyo, in 2007. He has participated in group exhibitions at the Austin Museum of Digital Art; the Denver Art Museum; the Palazzo delle Papesse, Siena; and the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. Alfred is best known for paintings, collages, and animations that examine the ways in which perception of our surroundings and culture is mediated by technology. His works focus on images featuring architecture, machinery, interiors, and urban landscapes presenting thematic concerns, including the signifiers of modernist idealism and the growing prevalence of surveillance in the post-9/11 world. However, he has also explored ways in which to recalibrate the clichéd tropes of romanticism. Alfred currently lives and works in Brooklyn, New York.

Cory Arcangel was born in 1978 in Buffalo, New York. He attended the Oberlin Conservatory in Ohio, where he received his Bachelor of Music in 2000. Solo exhibitions of his work have been presented at the Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Paris, and the Team Gallery, New York, in 2006; the Max Wigram Gallery, London, in 2007; the Museum of Contemporary Art, Miami, in 2010; and the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, in 2011. He has participated in group exhibitions at the Gallery Koko, Tokyo; The Power Plant, Toronto; the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.; and the Christine Konig Galerie, Vienna. Arcangel perceives software, hardware, and internet resources as raw art materials with an impartiality which reveals a completely novel style. A central theme in his work is the aging process of technologies—he has become well known through his practice of archeology in historic computer technology of the 1980s. His sculptures from the CNC Wire Form Product Demonstration series, shown in two series in Paris, could be called “digital ready-mades.” Arcangel currently lives and works in New York. Learn about Arcangel's MIG 29 Soviet Fighter Plane and Clouds, 2005

Jeremy Blake was born in 1971 in Fort Sill, Oklahoma. He received a BFA from The School of the Art Institute of Chicago in 1993 and an MFA from the California Institute of the Arts in 1995. Blake garnered attention in the late 1990s with his large-scale, semi-abstract digital C-prints that appeared to be paintings or photographs, but were neither. He then began to animate sequences of such images to create continuously looping digital video works that emulated paintings and film. His visually dense images often incorporated both abstract and representational expressions through the language of modernism and voices of film noir. Solo exhibitions of his work have been presented at Works on Paper Inc., Los Angeles; Feign Contemporary, New York; the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art; and Kinz, Tillou + Feigen, New York. His work has been presented in group exhibitions at the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, and the Vedanta Gallery, Chicago, as well as in in the 2005 exhibition Extreme Abstraction at the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo. Blake died in 2007 in New York.

Phil Collins was born in Runcorn, England, in 1970. He studied at the University of Manchester in 1990, and at the University of Ulster, School of Art & Design, Belfast, in 1998. He has had solo exhibitions at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art; the Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh; and the Aspen Art Museum. His work was screened at the 60th Berlin International Film Festival at the daadgalerie in 2010. His most recent exhibition was at Maraboupark in Stockholm, Sweden. Collins’s celebrated video series the world won’t listen is a collaboration between the artist and the disaffected youths of Bogotá, Colombia, Istanbul, Turkey, and Jakarta, Indonesia, filmed performing karaoke renditions of songs from The Smiths’ album The World Won’t Listen. By shifting the focus from sensational news coverage to aspects of everyday life, Collins addresses the inherent problems of representation. His use of video and photography appropriates the documentary tradition and elements of popular culture to establish an immediate and humorous connection with the participant and the viewer. A tender and sometimes melancholic portrait of both local and global society, the work is a study on the mediation and strength of popular culture to which, despite our boundaries, we are all exposed. Collins currently lives and works in Berlin, Germany.

Brody Condon was born in Nayarit, Mexico, in 1974. He received a BFA in sculpture from the University of Florida and then attended the Skowhegan School of Painting & Sculpture. He received an MFA in Visual Arts from the University of California, San Diego, in 2002. He attended residencies at the Rijksakademie van Beeldende Kunsten in 2004 and the Skowhegan School of Painting & Sculpture in 2001. His works have been exhibited at the Whitney Biennial, in 2004, and the Kunst-Werke Institute for Contemporary Art in Berlin. Condon’s work is notable for its influence on the repurposing of existing computer and live games to create sculpture, performance, and software installations. Condon currently lives and works in New York.

Edith Dekyndt was born in Ieper, Belgium, in 1960. She received her Bachelor of Communication Visuelle at E.T.H., St Ghislain, Belgium, in 1980. She received her Master Visual Arts at the Ecole Superieure des arts plastiques et visuels de l’Etat, Mons, Belgium, in 1985. She completed artist residencies at The Banff Centre, Canada, in 2004; the Program Gallery, Berlin, in 2007; and the International Residency at Recollets, Paris, in 2009. Dekyndt has had solo exhibitions of her work throughout Belgium and Canada. Her exhibition Agnosia at Witte de With at Rotterdam, The Netherlands, was organized by Nicolaus Schafhausen in 2009, and her exhibition Get Out of My Cloud at Kiosk, Ghent, Belgium, was organized by Wim Waelput in 2010. Her work has appeared in several group exhibitions, including the Palazzo Cavalli-Franchetti at the Venice Biennial in 2001; the Ecole superieure des Beaux-Arts, Valenciennes, France, in 2005; the Brussels Biennial and the Kunst-Werke Institute for Contemporary Art, Berlin—organized by Klaus Biesenbach—both in 2008; and The Museum of Modern Art, New York, in 2010. Dekyndt’s projects are focused on the occupation of space, experiencing the meaning and contents of space, the particularities of space itself, and the socio-anthropo-cultural human context. Dekyndt currently lives and works in Tournai, Belgium. Learn about Dekyndt's "Provisory Object" Series

James Drake was born in Lubbock, Texas, in 1946. He attended the Art Center College of Design, Los Angeles, where he obtained both a BFA and an MFA. He has received many awards, including the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellowship in 2001; the National Endowment for the Arts Grant; and the National Endowment for the Arts Travel Fellowship, France, in 1989. His work has been included in the prestigious Whitney Biennial. Drake’s work is held in a number of permanent collections, including those of the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; the National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.; the San Diego Museum of Contemporary Art; and the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo. Alternating between mural drawings, smaller sketches, and videos, Drake’s investigations take on a poetic, reflective quality. He exposes emotions and realities of individuals and their struggles for social justice. His work Tongue-cut Sparrows, 1996, centers on video projections of women standing on a sidewalk while communicating with prisoners inside an El Paso jail. The leaking of language across impenetrable barriers—whether they are jail walls or video monitors—speaks to the indomitable human desire to connect and communicate love and longing. Drake currently lives and works in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Gianfranco Foschino was born in Santiago, Chile, in 1983. He received his degree in Cinema at the UNIACC University in Santiago, Chile, in 2008. He studied Image and Sound Design at the University of Buenos Aires in 2005. He completed an artist residency with the filmmaker and visual artist Paula Gaitán and he had a solo exhibition at I-20 Gallery, New York, in 2010. He has participated in a number of group exhibitions, including at the Contemporary Art Museum, Santiago, in 2009; the G44 Gallery, Toronto, in 2010; and the 54th Venice Biennale in 2011. Foschino’s images combine bare naturalism with slow-motion video on a high-definition, box-shaped screen to convey a heightened sense of intimacy. In these works, beauty undermines poverty in a kind of visual joy. Foschino currently lives and works in Santiago.

Isaac Julien was born in England in 1960. He received a BA in Fine Art Film from the Central St. Martin’s School of Art in 1984. He attended Les Entrepreneurs de L’Audiovisuel European in Brussels for his Post-Doctoral in 1989. His work has been shown in solo exhibitions at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney; the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago; the Aspen Art Museum; the Galerie Yvon Lambert, Paris; the Contemporary Museum, Baltimore; and the Museum of Contemporary Art, Miami. He has participated in group exhibitions at the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Modern Art Oxford; The Banff Centre, Canada; the 2nd Johannesburg Biennale; The Museum of Modern Art, New York; the 50th Venice Biennale; and, most recently, the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, in 2010. While Julien’s work is usually depicted as a critical engagement with issues of black identity and representation, the tree pieces in Western Union: Small Boats, 2007, map a poetic historiography in which a cross-cultural encounter disrupts prior knowledge of real and imagined worlds. The series of fragmented and stylized tableaux suggests that the luxury to aspire is distributed unevenly across societies; beauty in Julien’s work serves as a complicated signifier for desire’s projected dreams. Julien currently lives and works in London.

Sarah Morris was born in the United States in 1967. She received a BA from Brown University in 1989. Her work has been shown in solo exhibitions at the Kunsthal, New York; Modern Art Oxford; the Museum für Moderne Kunst Frankfurt am Main; the Museo d’Arte Moderna di Bologna; and, most recently, the Galerie Meyer Kainer, Vienna, in 2010. She has participated in group exhibitions at the Galerie Max Hetzler, Berlin; The Liverpool Biennial of Contemporary Art; the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris; the Cleveland Center for Contemporary Art; The Museum of Modern Art, New York; the Barbican Art Gallery, London; the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago; the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York; and the Museum of Contemporary Art, Leipzig. Morris’s work Points on a Line, 2010, documents a shared desire to build structures that might change the way we think about a house, a form, and a context. Focused on two specific structures, the work examines how the shared ideas and collective desires of these buildings also complicate the ideas of the copy and the original and the chronologies of modernism. Morris’s cinematically coded architectural images go beyond expressing functionality to show what remains elusive within these places despite their openness. Morris currently lives and works in both New York and London.

Bruce Nauman was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, in 1941. He received a BS from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 1964, and an MFA from the University of California, Davis, in 1966. Nauman has taught at the San Francisco Art Institute and the University of California, Irvine. He has received many awards, including ones from the Venice Biennale; the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, Cambridge; the Skowhegan School of Painting & Sculpture; and the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies. He has had solo exhibitions at the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; the Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston; The Baltimore Museum of Art; the New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York; The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles; The Museum of Modern Art, New York; the Deutsche Guggenheim, Berlin; Tate Modern, London; Musée d’art contemporain de Montréal; and the Philadelphia Museum of Art. He has participated in an extensive number of group exhibitions, including at the Städtische Kunsthalle, Düsseldorf, Germany; the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; The Museum of Modern Art, New York; The Art Institute of Chicago; the Venice Biennale; the Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh; and The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles. In his work Green Horses, 1988, an empty chair sits between a pair of video monitors on a table against one wall and a video projects on an adjacent wall. All three videos display images of Nauman abstracted in the distance riding his horse. The chair, a recurring motif in the Nauman’s work for nearly thirty years, serves as a surrogate for the human figure in many of the artist’s sculptures. The chair allows for a visceral identification with his process, and allows the viewer to assume his gaze. Nauman confounds the security of the classical one-point perspective, favoring instead the shifting glance of a video surveillance camera. Nauman currently lives and works in New Mexico.

João Onofre was born in Lisbon, Portugal, in 1976. He attended the University of Fine Art, Lisbon. He received an MFA from Goldsmiths College, London. His work has been shown in solo exhibitions at FIAC 2003, Paris, in the section organized by Benjamin Weil and Caroline Bourgeois; Roma Roma Roma, Rome; Art Basel Miami Beach; and the Centro de Artes Visuais, Coimbra. He has participated in group exhibitions at the Tate Modern, London; the Müllerdechiara Gallery, Berlin; the Philadelphia Museum of Art; the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago; and the Emily Carr Institute, Vancouver. Onofre’s 2005 video Untitled (masked tap dancer) presents a dancer tapping his way through Lisbon to a subway stop. The routineness of the commute emerges as a powerfully hypnotic agent which eloquently suggests the latent absurdity of life. Onofre currently lives and works in Lisbon.

Julian Opie was born in 1958 in London, England. He studied at the Goldsmith’s School of Art, London, in 1983. He completed the Sargant Fellowship at the British School in Rome in 1995, and an artist residency at the Atelier Calder in Saché, France, in 1996. He was awarded the Music Week CADS, Best Illustration for “Best of Blur” in 2001. Major solo exhibitions of his work have been presented at the Institute of Contemporary Arts, London; SCAI THE BATHHOUSE, Tokyo; and the Museum Kampa, Prague. His work has appeared in a number of group exhibitions at the Tate Gallery, London; the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago; the Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston; and the Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo; as well as in the “Projects 77” billboards for The Museum of Modern Art, New York, and, most recently in 2011, WATCH ME MOVE: The Animation Show at Barbican Art Gallery, London. Opie’s portraits explore the tension between general and specific realities. His “painted” and “sculpted” works executed in LCDs and LEDs interrogate the genre of portraiture by transforming individual subjects into universal signs. Opie currently lives and works in London.

Tony Oursler was born in New York in 1957. He received a BFA from the California Institute of the Arts in 1979. His work was shown in an acclaimed solo exhibition, Disparities and Deformations: Our Grotesque, at SITE Santa Fe, organized by Robert Storr in 2004. In 2005, his retrospective exhibition Dispositifs traveled from the Jeu de Paume, Paris, to the DA2 Domus Atrium, Salamanca, and the Kunstforeningen GL STRAND, Copenhagen. His work is included in the permanent collections of a number of museums in the United States, including The Museum of Modern Art, New York; the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; and the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago; and among prestigious collections worldwide, including the Tate Gallery, London; the Saatchi Gallery, London; and the Centre Pompidou, Paris. Known primarily for his innovative combination of video and sculpture, Oursler uses humor and irony to explore the macabre relationship between the individual and mass media systems. Oursler currently lives and works in New York.

Orit Raff was born in Jerusalem, Israel, in 1970. She received a BFA at the School of Visual Arts Program, New York, in 1996, and an MFA at the Milton Avery Graduate School of the Arts, Bard College, New York, in 2002. She completed the Whitney Museum Independent Study Program, New York, in 1998, and The International Studio Program, New York, in 1999. Her work has been exhibited extensively, including in solo exhibitions at The Museum of Israeli Art, Ramat Gan, in 2002; SITE Santa Fe, Albuquerque, in 2002; and the Houston Center of Photography in 2000; and at numerous private galleries in the United States, Germany, and Israel. Her work is held in numerous collections, including those of the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo; MIT List Visual Arts Center, Boston; the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston; and the Tel Aviv Museum of Art. Raff’s work Untitled (bread/forgive/salt/dream), 2005, is composed of still photographic images, three videos, and sculptural components through which she demonstrates that the Hebrew words for bread and war share the same root: lhm. The video is entitled Fertility/Futility, as the photographs and videos depict a cycle of creation and destruction. Raff currently lives and works in Tel Aviv, Israel.

Alan Rath was born in Ohio in 1959. He received a BS in Electrical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1982. His work has been shown in solo exhibitions at the Aspen Art Museum; the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago; the Center for the Fine Arts, Miami; The Contemporary Museum, Honolulu; and the Institute of Contemporary Art, Philadelphia. He has participated in group exhibitions at the Berkeley Art Center; the Contemporary Art Center, Cincinnati; the Center for Fine Arts, Miami; the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art; the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; the Denver Art Museum; the Aspen Art Museum; and the Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston. A number of his works are in public and private collections throughout the United States. Rath uses advanced technology as both a subject and a medium—his works comment on how history has been, and is being, affected by technology’s advance. An unparalleled craftsmen, he conceptualizes and constructs every aspect of his creations. Rath currently lives and works in Oakland, California.

Jaye Rhee was born in Seoul, Korea, in 1973. She received a BFA from The School of the Art Institute of Chicago in 2001, and an MFA in 2003. In 2009 she studied at the Skowhegan School of Painting & Sculpture. Her work has been exhibited nationally and internationally, including at the Kobe Biennale 2007, Japan; the Queens Museum of Art, New York; the Bronx Museum, New York; the Aljira Contemporary, New Jersey; the Galerie Gana Beaubourg, Paris; the Chicago Cultural Center; and the Kyeonggi Museum of Modern Art, Seoul. Her work focuses on the tension between “real” desire and “fake” objects of desire, as embodied by images. Rhee has commented that her work is concerned with “making real fakes by forthrightly showing artifice without the concealment of ambiguity.” Like many of her projects, Tear, 2002, involves movement in time, with the performer featured as central to the work. The viewer is drawn, by the mechanics of the video, into the performer’s tensioned surface between past and future, imaginary and real. Rhee currently lives and works in New York.

Kelly Richardson was born in Burlington, Ontario, in 1972. She studied fine art at the Ontario College of Art & Design where she received her AOCAD with honors. She received an MFA in Media Studies at the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design and an MFA with distinction from Newcastle University. Her work has been exhibited internationally at a number of museums and institutions, including the Musée d’art contemporain de Montréal; the Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto; Centre Pompidou, Paris; the first Beijing 798 Biennale, in 2009; the Busan Biennale, in 2008; the Gwangju Biennale, in 2004; and the Sundance Film Festival, in 2009 and 2011. Most recently in 2011, her work The Cinema Effect: Illusion, Reality and the Moving Image was shown at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.; it is now on tour at Caixaforum, Barcelona. Her work is represented in the public collections of the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo; the Musée d’art contemporain de Montréal; the Art Gallery of Ontario; and the Art Gallery of Nova Scotia, Halifax. Richardson’s work explores simultaneity, affect, and the use of cinematic language to create part-real/part-imagined landscapes. Her high-definition video Twilight Avenger, 2008, presents a wavering hybrid of fact and fiction, offering visual metaphors for modern “reality.” Richardson questions our place in the world, with allusions to political, cultural, societal, and environmental issues. Richardson currently lives and works in Whitley Bay in the United Kingdom.

Peter Sarkisian was born in Glendale, California, in 1965. He studied at the California Institute of the Arts in 1986. His first solo exhibition was organized by Louis Grachos at SITE Santa Fe in 1997. In 1998, Sarkisian premiered one of his seminal works, Dusted, at the I-20 Gallery in New York. A year later, that piece was shown at the Edinburgh College of Art as part of the Edinburgh International Festival in Scotland. His work has also been shown at the Whitney Biennial; at the Contemporary Art Museum, Kumamoto, Japan; in Mexico City at Vidarte 2002, Festival Internacional de Video y Artes Electrónicas; and in the exhibition Bodily Space: New Obsessions in Figurative Sculpture, organized by Director Louis Grachos at the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, in 2004. Sarkisian’s extensive body of work questions what is tangible and what is imagined. His video installations are designed to create perceptual conflicts between image, contour, and surface, thereby allowing the viewer to draw multiple visual conclusions while reconsidering the medium of video itself. In the vacuum-formed thermal plastic and video projection Extruded Video Engine #5, 2007, Sarkisian imagines how video itself might look: a clinking, cartoon-like façade through which snippets of text scroll in random bursts. Sarkisian currently lives and works in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Shahzia Sikander was born in Lahore, Pakistan, in 1969. She received a BFA at the National College of Arts, Lahore, in 1992, and an MFA at the Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, in 1995. Her work has been shown in exhibitions at the Aldrich Art Contemporary Museum, Ridgefield; The San Diego Museum of Art; the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.; The Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art and Design, Kansas City; and the Irish Museum of Modern Art, Dublin. She has participated in group exhibitions at the Museum of Fine Art, Boston; The Museum of Modern Art, New York; PS1 Contemporary Art Center, New York; the Los Angeles County Museum of Art; The Drawing Center, New York; the Palais de Tokyo, Paris; and the Museum of Contemporary Art, Helsinki. Her work has been selected for the Venice Biennale and the Whitney Biennial. Sikander’s animation Pursuit Curve, 2004, is constructed using the mathematical function that maps the line of points representing pursuer and pursued. Her work is not merely narrative—she creates a dialogue with tradition that destabilizes representations of East and West, narration and abstraction. Through this complicated multitude of starburst shapes, she creates a space for questions of identity. Sikander currently lives and works in New York.

John F. Simon, Jr. was born in Louisiana in 1963. He received an MFA in Computer Art from the School of Visual Arts. He received additional degrees from Brown University, Providence, and Washington University, St. Louis. His work has been shown in solo exhibitions at the Digital Art Museum, Berlin, and SITE Santa Fe, Albuquerque. He has participated in a number of group exhibitions at renowned museums, including the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, and the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York. Simon’s work is found in the collections of The Museum of Modern Art, New York; the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum; the Whitney Museum of American Art; the Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York; the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art; and the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. He has had a number of web projects and public commissions throughout the United States, Europe, and Asia. Simon’s software work Endless Victory, 2005, is inspired by Piet Mondrian’s unfinished painting Victory Boogie-Woogie, 1942–44. Simon improvises the motif of New York’s endlessly merging, dividing, starting, and stopping traffic. The piece, like his earlier work ComplexCity, 2000, is software-based, allowing the visual elements to be generated in real time and with continual variation. The simulated third dimension on the flat screen plays against the dimensional thickness of the framing, heightening the tension between a simulated urban lifestyle and recognizable natural shapes. Simon currently lives and works in New York.

Michael Snow was born in Toronto, Ontario, in 1929. Working as a painter, photographer, filmmaker, and musician, Snow is considered among Canada's most important artists living today. In the past decade, he has participated in major exhibitions, exploring images in the modern world: these include Passages de l'image (organized by the Centre Pompidou, Paris), Projections, les transports de l'image (first presented at Le Fresnoy–Studio national des arts contemporains), and the Biennale d’art contemporain de Lyon. Retrospectives of his painting, sculpture, photo works, and holography have been presented at the Hara Museum, Tokyo; exhibitions of his films have been presented at the Cinémathèquie Française, Paris, and Anthology Film Archives and Institut Lumière, Lyons; and exhibitions of his work in all media have been presented at The Power Plant, Toronto, and the Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, in 1994. His films have been presented at festivals in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, and the United States, and are in the collections of several archives, including Anthology Film Archives, New York; the Royal Belgian Film Archives, Brussels; and the Osterreichisches Film Museum, Vienna. His film Wavelength won the Grand Prize at the International Experimental Film Festival in Belgium in 1967. Another film, So Is This, won the Los Angeles Film Critics award in 1982. Snow is a member of the Order of Canada and a knight of the Order of Arts and Letters in France and has received numerous awards, including a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1975 and the Governor General’s Award in Visual and Media Arts in 2000. In the late 1960s, Snow collaborated with a Canadian engineer to develop a mechanical arm that enables a camera to turn in every direction and at rotary speeds controlled by the artist. This mechanical arm was used in Snow’s film La Région centrale of 1971. Snow currently lives and works in Toronto.

Jennifer Steinkamp was born in Denver, Colorado, in 1958. She attended the California Institute of the Arts, Valencia, and received a BFA and MFA from the Art Center College of Design, Pasadena. Her work has been exhibited in solo exhibitions at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C., in 2005; The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, in 2005; the San Jose Museum of Art, in 2006; the Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art, Kansas City, in 2007; and the North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, in 2010. Her work has also been included in group exhibitions at the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, in 2008; the San Antonio Museum of Art, in 2009; the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, in 2010; and Prospect 2, New Orleans, in 2011. Additionally, she has participated in the 8th Annual Istanbul Biennial and the 11th Cairo International Biennial. She has won numerous awards, including a Getty Individual Grant in 1996; the 2003 Provost’s Award for Innovation in Teaching with Technology from the University of California; and the California Community Foundation, J. Paul Getty Trust Fund in 2009. Her work is in numerous public and private collections, both nationally and internationally. Steinkamp employs computer animation and new media to create projection installations exploring ideas about architectural space, motion, and phenomenological perception. Her digitally animated works make use of the interplay between actual space and illusionistic space, creating environments in which the roles of the viewing subjects and the art objects become blurred. Steinkamp currently lives and works in Los Angeles, California.

Bill Viola was born in New York in 1951. In 1973, he received a BFA in Experimental Studios from Syracuse University, where he studied visual art with Jack Nelson and electronic music with Franklin Morris. He holds honorary doctorates from Syracuse University (1995), The School of the Art Institute of Chicago (1997), the California Institute of the Arts (2000), and the Royal College of Art, London (2004), among others, and was inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2000. In 1998, Viola was invited to be a Scholar at the Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles, and, in 2009, he received the Eugene McDermott Award in the Arts from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 2006 he was awarded Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters by the French Government. Since the early 1970s, Viola’s video artworks have been seen all over the world. A solo exhibition of his work was presented at The Museum of Modern Art, New York, in 1987, and, from 1992 to 1994, seven of his installations toured six venues in Europe, organized by the Kunsthalle Düsseldorf and Kira Perov. Viola represented the United States at the 46th Venice Biennale, in 1995, and, in 1997, the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, organized Bill Viola: A 25-Year Survey—featuring more than thirty-five installations and videotapes—which traveled for two years to six museums in the United States and Europe. One of the largest exhibitions of Viola’s installations to date, Bill Viola: Hatsu-Yume (First Dream), 2006–07, drew more than 340,000 visitors to the Mori Art Museum, Tokyo. Viola is the recipient of numerous awards and honors, including a John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Fellowship in 1989, and the first Medienkunstpreis in 1993, presented jointly by Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie, Karlsruhe, and Siemens Kulturprogramm, Germany. Viola has been instrumental in the establishment of video as a vital form of contemporary art and, in so doing, has helped to greatly expand its scope in terms of technology, content, and historical reach. Viola currently lives and works in Long Beach, California. Learn about Viola's The Messenger, 1996